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Vaccine Storage: Temperature Ranges for Safe Storage of 14 Common and Rare Vaccines

If you are tasked with the safe storage of preventative medicines, you’ll want to ensure proper vaccine temperature ranges. This basic vaccine storage chart may help:

1. Adenovirus vaccine

Vaccines designed to protect against Type 4 and Type 7 Adenovirus are typically supplied as 100-count bottles of round, enteric-coated tablets. To maintain integrity of the live oral vaccine, bottles should be refrigerated between 35°F and 46°F or between 2°C and 8°C, advises manufacturer Barr Labs, Inc.

2. Cholera vaccine

Indicated for immunization against serogroup 01 cholera, Vaxchora comprises an active component and a buffering agent that are reconstituted with purified water to provide a dose of oral vaccine. Both components should be kept frozen between −13°F to 5°F or −25°C to −15°C prior to use.

3. Dengue fever vaccine

Designed to prevent three types of dengue disease, Dengvaxia is provided as a freeze-dried powder and saline diluent that are mixed to create an injectable suspension. Prior to mixing, components should refrigerated between 36ºF and 46ºF or 2ºC to 8ºC. Reconstituted solution may be safely stored at the same temperature for 30 minutes prior to use. If not used within 30 minutes, reconstituted vaccine should be discarded, according to the Sanofi Pasteur product packaging insert.

4. Ebola vaccine

Manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc., Ervebo is indicated for adult use to prevent the Zaire Ebola virus. The vaccine comes frozen and should remain between-112°F and -76°F or -80°C to -60°C until thawed at room temperature shortly prior to administration. Unused vaccine may be safely stored at room temperature up to 77°F or 25°C for four hours after which time it should be carefully discarded. Never re-freeze Ervebo vaccine.

5. Haemophilus influenza type B vaccine

Provided as a three-dose series of shots for pediatric use, Vaxelis is designed to thwart diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B, and other invasive diseases associated with Haemophilus influenza type B. Supplied in single dose vials, Vaxelis injectable suspension should be refrigerated between 36°F and 46°F or between 2°C and 8°C. Product must never be frozen. Any Vaxelis vaccine that has been exposed to freezing temperatures should be discarded, advises the FDA.

6. Hepatitis A and B vaccine

Manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline, Twinrix is formulated to protect against two virulent form of hepatitis liver disease. Approved for persons 18 years and older, Twinrix is supplied in single-dose, prefilled syringes that should be refrigerated between 36 and 46F or between 2C and 8C. Product exposed to freezing temps should be discarded, advises the manufacturer.

7. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine

Made by Merck & Co., Inc., Gardasil 9 prevents genital warts as well as cervical, vaginal, vulvar, and anal cancers that are caused by several strains of the HPV virus. Gardasil 9 is typically supplied as prefilled vials that should be protected from light as refrigerated between 36°F and 46°F or between 2°C to 8°C. As long as cumulative excursion time out of the refrigerator does not exceed 72 hours, product is generally safe to use, advises Merck.

8. Japanese encephalitis vaccine

Approved for use in persons 2 months of age and older, Ixiaro is delivered in two doses approximately one month apart. Ixiaro is supplied as a suspension in prefilled syringes that may or may not come with a needle. Keep the vaccine refrigerated between 35°F and 46°F or between 2°C and 8°C at all times, but do not freeze. A white precipitate may be observed in the product during storage. This is normal, explains the manufacturer.

9. Meningococcal ACWY vaccine

Designed to prevent four forms of meningococcal disease, Menactra is FDA-approved for use in humans age 2 months to 55 years. Menactra is typically supplied in single-dose vials that should be refrigerated between 35°F and 46°F or between 2°C and 8°C. Product should never be frozen, warns manufacturer Sanofi Pasteur Inc.

10. Monkeypox vaccine

Manufactured by Emergent Biosolutions, ACAM2000 is designed to protect against smallpox and monkeypox viruses. In lieu of injection, the vaccine is delivered via a procedure called percutaneous scarification. AAM2000 is typically supplied as a freeze-dried powder that is mixed with a glycerine-phenol diluent prior to use. Product package does not provide an exact temperature range, but says components should be kept in cold storage until reconstitution. Reconstituted vaccine is safe to use within six to eight hours if kept at room temperature between 68°F and 77°F or between 20°C and 25°C. Reconstituted vaccine solution may be refrigerated up to 30 days between 36°F and 46°F or between 2°C and 8°C. After that time, unused vaccine should be discarded as a hazardous material, advises the maker.

11. Tetanus vaccine

Made by GlaxoSmithKline, Boostrix is an injectable vaccine designed to provide active booster immunization against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus in persons 10 years and older. The vaccine is supplied as disposable, single-dose vials and syringes that typically come in packages of 10. Boostrix should be refrigerated between 36ºF and 46ºF or between 2ºC and 8ºC. Any product exposed to freezing temperatures should be discarded, advises the manufacturer.

12. Typhoid vaccine

Manufactured in Switzerland by PaxVax Berna, Vivotif typhoid vaccine is typically supplied in blister packs of four capsules each. Because the vaccine is unstable at ambient temperatures, the product should be kept between 35.6°F and 46.4°F or between 2°C and 8°C at all times.

13. Yellow fever vaccine

Made by Sanofi Pasteur, YF-Vax is designed to prevent infection mosquito-borne flavivirus. The vaccine is supplied in latex-free stoppered glass vials along with separate vials of diluent with which to reconstitute the freeze-dried vaccine. The preservative-free yellow fever vaccine should always be stored between 35° and 46°F or between 2°C and 8°C.

14. Zoster vaccine

Designed to prevent shingles (herpes zoster) infection in adults age 55 and older, Shingrix is supplied in single-dose vials with accompanying vials of ancillary suspension. Prior to reconstitution, all vials should be refrigerated between 36°F and 46°F or between 2°C and 8°C. If refrigerated at the same temperature, reconstituted Shingrix vaccine is safe to use for up to six hours. After that time, unused vaccine should be discarded, says GlaxoSmithKline.

Additional information

While the above vaccine storage chart is by no means complete, it does give you a general idea of the importance of your laboratory refrigeration units and freezers. If you have any questions about proper vaccine storage, contact American BioTech Supply without delay.


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